125IN: Consumer Chemistry
These files are
provided for students in Chemistry 125IN, an integrated lecture and laboratory class at Pima
Community College for the 2013-2014 academic year.
and Class Information:
125IN Syllabus for Fall 2013
Short Report Information for CHM 125IN
What's That Stuff This is a link to the Chemical & Engineering News web page which archives their continuing columns on the chemistry of everyday materials. These articles are not highly technical. Chemical & Engineering News is the weekly publication of the American Chemical Society.
The Science Channel now posts videos from their shows How Do They Do It? and How It's Made which focus on many products
This is an integrated class that combines both the lecture and the laboratory.
Passing the course requires attendance to class, completion of assignments, quizzes, exams, and all aspects of the laboratory experiments including any pre-lab reports, and laboratory reports.
A major requirement of this course is writing two short reports, each being 5 pages in length, double spaced. Details of these reports are given in the course syllabus and also on this web page.
No textbook is required for this course. The book by Ben Selinger, Chemistry in the Marketplace, can be used as a reference for this course.
The Periodic Table If you are looking for information on any chemical element, its properties, or its uses, use this link to the Web Elements Periodic Table by Mark Winter, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Sheffield. Probably the best periodic table on the Internet, it provides a wealth of information about the elements.
Visual Elements Periodic Table This is a link to the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) interactive periodic table. Elements can be highlighted by their groups, blocks and periods. There is an abundance of information about each element and it will continue to evolve with additional information.
ChemSpider If you are searching for information on chemical compounds, their structure or other information, ChemSpider links together compound information across the web, providing free text and structure search access of millions of chemical structures. With an abundance of additional property information, tools to curate and use the data, and integration to a multitude of other online services, ChemSpider is the richest single source of structure-based chemistry information available online. ChemSpider is provided free by the Royal Society of Chemistry
Many of the references listed below are links to other web sites. These links, or the information referred to, may change when web sites are updated. Some web sites may be deleted by sponsoring organizations over time. Please advise your instructor if a web site is no longer accessible.
The origins of chemistry
An Illustrated History of Alchemy and Chemistry from ancient times to 1800
Math Review includes significant figures and scientific notation
Math Review Algebraic operations you should be able to do before starting a general chemistry course
Math Answers Answers to the Math Review problems
Significant Figures, Exponents, and Scientific Notation A tutorial
A Summary of Significant Figures Rules
Answers for Significant Figures, Exponents, and Scientific Notation
Measurement, and Temperature
Metric System The SI system with a short history of measurement
Temperature Temperature measurement with a short historical background
Absolute Zero This is a program from NOVA (split into 10 chapters). The program presents a history of temperature measurement up to the modern methods of trying to reach absolute zero. This is a link to the NOVA website.
The Elements and the Periodic Table
Element Symbols A historical approach to modern element symbols
Forging the Elements How were the elements formed? This is a segement from the NOVA program Origins: Back to the Beginning. Watch the entire program (split into 6 chapters) or just select the Forging the Elements chapter. This is a link to the NOVA website.
All the Gold in the Universe Could Come From the Collisions of Neutron Stars An article by Joseph Stromberg from Smithsonian.com, July 17, 2013, about the origins of heavy metals in the iniverse.
The End of the World Might Just Look Like This An article from Smithsonian, July 18, 2013 by Ron Miller. If you viewed the NOVA program Origins: Back to the Beginning of just the Forging the Elements segment, you have an idea of how the world started. This is how it could end.
The Periodic Table This is a link to the Web Elements Periodic Table by Mark Winter, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Sheffield. Probably the best periodic table on the Internet, it provides a wealth of information about the elements. This is the place to look for information about the chemical elements.
Electron configurations This is an applet for electron configurations from The ChemCollective at Carnegie Mellon
Prospects for Further Considerable Extension of the Periodic Table, a paper by Glenn T. Seaborg, Journal of Chemical Education, 46, Number 10, October 1969, p626
Island of Stability A video from NOVA explaining how heavy elements are made. This is a link to the NOVA website
The Elements A song by Tom Lehrer recored in 1959 and originally publishedon the recording An Evening Wasted with Tom Lehrer. This version comes from HallofWisdom in Seattle
Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature
Formula Writing Includes nomenclature of inorganic compounds.
Answers for Formula Writing
Additional Tables for Formula Writng These tables were supplied by Matthew Medeiros of Pima Community College.
Flowcharts for Naming Compounds and Common Acids
Chemical Formulas and Formula Weight Calculations A tutorial on the meaning of chemical formulas and formula weight calculations.
Chemical Formulas and Formula Weight Calculations This is a PDF of the PowerPoint presentation used in class.
NaCl by Kate and Anna McGarrigle. Kate was failing her chemistry course and came up with this while studying for her exam.
Notes on Organic Chemistry This is a PDF of the PowerPoint used in class
Nomenclature of Organic Compounds A tutorial on organic nomenclature
The Athabasca Tar Sands This is a PDF file of the PowerPoint presentation used in class
The Trans-Alaska Pipline This is a PDF file of the PowerPoint presentation used in class
Product Safety and Toxicology
Product safety standards This is a link to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commision
Toxicology basics This is a PDF of a PowerPoint presentation Principles of Toxicology by Elizabeth Casarez of the Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy.
Notes on Toxicology basics These are a PDF file of the Principles of Toxicology (BIOC 597c) by Elizabeth Casarez of the Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy.
NIH/NLM Toxicology Tutor (also called Tox Tutors) from the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.
Soap and Detergent
Soap This is a link to the Wikipedia article on soap
Detergent This is a link to the Wikipedia article on detergent
The Chemistry of Cleaning Clothes This is a link to the HowStuffWorks web site
Soaps & Detergents: Products & Ingredients This is a link to the American Cleaning Institute web site which presents an overview of many household cleaners. A 36 page book on Soaps and Detergents, written for the general public, is available for download in PDF format.
There are numerous articles on foods on the Internet. Mary articles are factual, but many also are biased depending on the sponsors of the web site you visit. (That includes some medical web sites.) Always check several different web sites to get a balanced view of the food items you are researching.
Fats and Oils
Summary information can be found at the U.S. Department of Agriculture website:
Click here for information on oils Also view additional information clicking on the Oils menu on the right of that page.
Click here for information about solid fats (listed under the topic of Empty Calories) Also view additional information clicking on the Empty Calories menu on the right of that page.
The American Dietetic Association has a Primer on Fats and Oils
Cooking oil This is a link to the Wikipedia articles on Cooking Oil. This article contains a listing of the smoke point of many oils.
Olestra: Wow! or Woe? A paper by Katie Watson from the Health Psychology Department at Vanderbilt University
Sugar Stacks presents a unique way of showing how much sugar is in our food.
Sugar This is a link to the Wikipedia page on sugar.
High-fructose corn syrup This is a link to the Wikipedia page on high-fructose corn syrup.
The Sugar Association has a web site about sugar. Explore this site.
Sugar alcohols are sweeteners used with or in place of sugar. This is a link to the Wikipedia page on sugar alcohols
Sugar substitute This is a link to the Wikipedia page on sugar substitutes.
Some other web sites discussing sugar and artificial sweeteners with reasonable balanced discussions include The Mayo Clinic, MedicineNet.com, WedMD, and Howstuffworks
Butter and Margarine
Learn about butter, its history, controversies, and how its made at Butter Through the Ages
Margarine This is a link to the Wikipedia page about margarine
Chemistry in Every Cup An article about the chemistry of coffee by Emma Davies, from Chemistry World, May 2011
Coffee and Your Health This is a link to WebMD discussing the potential health benefits and drawbacks of coffee.
Learn about the Science of Pickles at the Exploratorium Science of Cooking Kitchen Lab. The site includes information and recipes
Pickling This is a link to the Wikipedia site on pickling. This is a basic article that, according to Wikipedia, needs additional information.
How Do I..Pickle? This is a link to the National Center for Home Food Preservation.
To learn more about root beer, brands, recipes and more go to Root Beer World
The Popcorn Board, a non-profit check-off organization funded by U.S. popcorn processors has a web site to raise awareness of popcorn as a versatile, whole-grain snack. Popcorn
Wikipedia has an article on popcorn This is a link to that page.
Food Additives and Nutrients
Food Additives: What They Do A list of common food additives and the reason they are added to our food.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has a website listing Everything Added To Food in the United States (EAFUS) There is a lot to navigate in this site.
A list of many food additives and their known usage, with a glossary of food additive terms can be found at the NutritionData website
The USDA has a Nutrition Information For You information page with a link to their National Nutrient Database
The International Food Information Council has a wesite listing a Functional Foods Fact Sheet: Antioxidants
Ka Tom Restaurant Supply publishes a MyPlate Resource Guide MyPlate replaces the USDA Food Pyramid nutrition guide. In addition to a History of USDA Food Guides, there is a current summary of Daily Recommendations and extensive links to nutritional information.
Cheese.com is a website that has a searchable database of 670 cheeses by names, country of origin, kind of milkthat is used to produce it, or by texture
Beginning cheese making is an article by David B. Frankhauser, PhD. of University of Cincinnati Clermont College. He also has a web page Cheese making illustrated with step-by-step instructions.
Bread This is a link to the Wikipedia article on bread
On the Rise An article on Bread Chemistry by Bryan Reuben and Tom Coultate. This article originally appeared in Chemistry World, October 2009
Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day is the web site of Jeff Hertzberg, M.D. and Zoe Francois, authors of a book with the same title, on baking homemade bread with minimal kneading. Illustrated instructions are provided on this web site.
The Evolution of American Barbeque An article from Smithsonian.com, July 16, 2013
Barbeque This is a link to the Wikipedia page on barbeque. This is a good place to start for finding information on barbeque. Since barbeque styles vary with regions around the U.S. and the numerous variations, it is best to use a search engine to find additional information.
Molecular gastronomy is the science that studies the physical and chemical processes that occur in cooking
Wikipedia has an article on Molecular Gastronomy. This is a link to that page.
How Molecular Gastronomy Works. This is a link to the How Stuff Works web site.
Food for tomorrow? An article by HerveThis in EMBO reports, Volume 11, October 2010
Texture - A hydrocolloid recipe collection (screen resolution version 2.3, May 2010) A book of recipes edited by Martin Lersch. This is published and updated on Martin Lersch's blog Khymos This is a link to his blog.
There are other web sites and blogs for molecular gastronomy (some with annoying ads that pop up). Those above are good places to start.
Sous vide This is a link to the Wikipedia page on Sous-vide (under pressure)
Cooking Sous Vide is a web site about sous vide cooking which is trying to collect information about the process and equipment with a list of recipes.
The United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Water Science for Schools website contains information on many aspects of water, along with pictures, data, maps, and an interactive center where you can give opinions and test your water knowledge.
Wastewater/Sewage Treatment This is a link to the Wikipedia article on Sewage Treatment
Caloric Content of Food
CalorieLab allows you to search over 70,000 foods and 500 restaurants for information on calories, protein, carbohydrates, and fat.
Food Chemistry Articles from Chemistry World, October 2009. Chemistry World is a publication of the Royal Chemical Society (RSC) in Great Britain.
The Spice of Life describes some of the health benefits of spices
In a Fix tells about the importance of nitrogen fixation for fertilization of crops
Boxing Clever is an article about developments in packaging materials for foods
On the Rise describes bread chemistry by Bryan Reuben and Tom Coultate.
The Food Detectives tells about the investiagtion of food adulteration
Shaken, not stirred tells about some chemistry of mixed drinks
A Food Chemistry Parody by the Capitol Steps: Buy, Buy American Pie
Some Reference Books on Chemistry and Cooking
McGee, Harold, On Food and Cooking, Revised and updated edition, Scribners, 2004
McGee, Harold, The Curious Cook, Collier Books, 1990
Grosser, Arthur E., The Cookbook Decoder, Beaufort, 1981
Corriher, Shirley O., Cookwise, Morrow, 1997
Corriher, Shirley O., Bakewise, Scribner, 2008
Rosenthal, Sylvia, and Fran Shinagel, How Cooking Works, Macmillan, 1981
Coultate, Tom, and Jill Davies, Food, The Definitive Guide, Royal Society of Chemistry, 1994
Beckett, Stephen T., The Science of Chocolate, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2008
Clarke, C., The Science of Ice Cream, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004
Some TelevisionShows About food
American Eats focuses on the history of American foods and cooking. It was broadcast on the History Channel in 2006. Topics included Hot Dogs, Pizza, Ice Cream, and more. Episodes are ocasionally shown on the History Channel, some are available on youtube, and on TV.com. Some episodes are available on DVD.
Food Tech was a series broadcast on the History Channel in 2010. Host Bobby Bognar examined different meals such as Cheeseburger and Fries, Chinese Take-out, Mexican, Southern Fried, and more. Each episode traces the making of the foods that are part of the meals from farm to processing. Episodes are rerun on the History Chanel and can be found on youtube and TV.com.
Food Factory is the "How Its Made" of food. This show appears on the Food Network in Canada. It shows how favorite foods are made from raw materials to finished products. Usually 3 or 4 foods are shown in each episode.
Cosmetics and Personal Care
Skin Cream This is a link to the WebMD site discussing Hope in a Jar: Do Skin Creams Work?
Skin Cream Ingredients This is a link to the WebMD site discussing the products in skin creams
The Vaseline skin lotion web site has a glossary of ingredients found in skin lotions. This is a link to that page.
Sunscreen This is a link to the Wikipedia article. It contains a nice listing of active ingredients
Essential Oils and Perfumes
How Perfumes Work This is a link to the How Stuff Works web site
The Sweet Scent of Success An article about discovering and developing odor molecules for perfumes by Emma Davies from Chemistry World, February 2009
Want to know what's in your favorite perfume? Mabel White's Supply Company has a list of perfume recipes.
International Flavors and Fragrances (IFF) is a major supplier of flavors and fragrances. This is a link to their ingredients page of their web site. You can access a list of either fragance or flavor ingredients. When you open either page, you can get more information about any substance, such as chemical structures, uses, and properties, by clicking on its name.
Nature's Garden is a company that sells wholesale candle and soap supplies. Their web site has an extensive list of fragrance oils and essential oils. Although I have purchased fragrance oils from this company, this is not an endorsement of the company or a sales promotion.
Toothpaste formulation and whitening toothpaste Information from the Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA), August 2001
Medicines and Drugs
MedlinePlus is a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. It is designed to direct you to information to answer health questions. This is a link to the pain relievers page.
FamilyDoctor.org provides health information and links. This is a link to the pain relievers page.
WebMD provides a wide range of health information. This is a link to the pain relievers page.
Drugs of Abuse
Charts of Commonly Abused Drugs can be found at the DEA (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration) and NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) web siites.
Diet Soda and Alcohol This is a short article from Smithsonian Magazine, January 16, 2014, titled Diet Soda Makes Breathalizers Think You're Drunk. This is not an in-depth study, but it contains some interesting information about alcohol and sugar.
Consumer Reports magazine published an excellent book Licit and Illicit Drugs This is a link to that book online.
Proteins Unraveled An article on protein unfolding and applications to food chemistry and diseases..An article by Philip Ball from Chemistry World, December 2009
How Batteries Work This is a link to the howstuffworks web site
Energizer Learning Center has a site that tells about batteries, history, battery care, battery comparison, and some battery experiments.
Battery University is a site sponsored by Cadex Electronics Inc., in Vancouver BC. The site contains information about battery chemistries, best battery choices and ways to make your battery last longer.
How Fuel Cells Work This is a link to the HowStuffWorks web site on Fuel Cells
Fuel Cells This is a link to the NOVA site that has a 14 minute video on fuel cell cars and a number of discussion points on fuel cells
The Online Fuel Cell Information Resource This is a link to a web site from the Breakthrough Technologies Institute (BTI), a non-profit [501(c)(3)] independent, educational organization that identifies and promotes environmental and energy technologies that can improve the human condition.
LEDs to Light up the World An article by Ned Stafford about LED bulbs from Chemistry World, April 2010
The Spiders' Apprentices An article about the chemistry of spider silk and how scientists have tried to reproduce it. An article by Michael Gross from Chemistry World, December 2010
Papermaking A video on YouTube. Brian Cowie, CEO of The Paper Mill Store, Inc. takes us on a tour of Neenah Paper's Appleton, Wisconsin paper mill as they make recycled paper.
Ever Wonder How Paper is Made? A video showing the process of papermaking at Cortland Paper Mills in New York
"How It's Made": Paper from the Discovery/Science Channel. This video shows how handmade paper is produced commerically.
The Macrogalleria is a polymer learning cite produced by the Polymer Science Learning Center of the Department of Polyer Science at the University of Southern Mississippi
Polymer is the Wikipedia site providing a brief semi-technical description of polymers
Rubber This is a link to the Wikipedia article on natural rubber.
Synthetic rubber This is a link to the Wikipedia article on synthetic rubber
Crayons This is a link to the Wikipedia site
How Crayons and Markers are Made This is a link to the HowStuffWorks web site
How Crayons are Made This is a link to the Science Channel video from
How its Made on Crayons
What is Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology Takes Off A QUEST video, Part of A KQED Multimedia Series Exploring Northern California Science, Environment and Nature
What is Nanotechnology This is a link to the web site of CRN, the Center for Responsible Nanotechnology
Introduction to Nanotechnology This is a link to the nanowerk website. This is a good multipage article on nanotechnology (An outline of the article's contents is on the left-hand side of the page.)
How Nanotechnology Works This is a link to the HowStuffWorks web site
The Nano Song by the Sounds of Science a group of graduate students and alumni at UC Berkeley. Nanotechnology can be fun.
History of Clothing and Textiles This is a link to the Wikipedia page on clothing and textiles
Dyes and Dyeing
A Brief History of Dyestuffs & Dyeing A brief history by Lady Siobhan nicDhuinnshleibhe presented at Runestone Collegium on 19 February 2000
Natural Dye This is a link to the Wikipedia page on Natural Dye
Colorants Industry History A brief illustrated history of the synthetic dye industry in Europe and the United states.
Textile Conservation An artilce by Anita Quye from Education in Chemistry, May 2013, on cleaning and preserving fabrics and clothing
Experiments and Activities:
Tthe laboratory safety and procedures book, The General Chemistry Laboratory Survival Manual, is available in the college bookstore. The laboratory experiments are available here for downloading. Please check the course syllabus for dates for individual experiments. (These are PDF files and require acrobat reader.)
Read the experiments before coming to class. If you prefer to work from your computer or tablet, you will still need to download data pages for your lab reports.
Safety in the Academic Laboratory
Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories, 7th Ed. This is a link to the publication by the American Chemical Society Joint Board-council Committee on Chemical Safety
Safety Test Questions These questions are similar, but not exactly the same, as those asked on the safety test. The safety test contains 35 questions.
The Safety Song by the Sounds of Science a group of graduate students and alumni at UC Berkeley. Safety doesn't have to be boring.
Graphing with Excel A LabWrite Resources tutorial on graphing from NC State University
Experiments involving an investigation of physical and chemical properties
Experiments involving chemical reactions
Synthesis of Zinc Iodide: Tracking a Chemical Reaction
Experiments involving how a chemical product is produced
of a Chemical Product
Organic chemistry experiments
Esters: A Microscale Introduction to Organic Chemistry Reactions
Experiments involving acids and bases
Bases, and pH Using Red Cabbage Paper
Experiments with soap and detergent
Chemistry of Soaps and Detergents This contains both the preparation of a soap and a detergent and testing the properties of soaps and detergents.
Evaluation of Detergents and Cleaning Aids
Preparation of a Dye Catcher
Experiments involving food
Safety with Food Chemistry Experiments
Potato Chips and French Fried Potatoes
Potato Chip Tasting
of Fat in Potato Chips and French Fried Potatoes
Popcorn Why does popcorn pop?
Microwave Popcorn How is microwave popcorn constructed? Do you really need all those ingredients?
Fats and Oils
Butter in a Bottle
Size of a Fatty Acid Molecule
Pickling and Fermentation
Zip-Lock Pickles Make pickles in a small batch in a Zip-Lock bag
Quick Pickles Pickles in about an hour using standard cucumbers.
Quick Cabbage Salad (Quick Slaw) in as little as an hour
Peanut and Nut Butter
Easy Cheese A soft herb flavored cheese
Mozzarella How to make Mozzarella cheese
Bread and Yeast
Biscuits Three recipes for baking biscuits.
How Yeast Works
Food Additives and Nutrients
The Preparation of Artificial Food Flavors
Esters: A Microscale Introduction to Organic Chemistry Reactions
Make Your Own Orange Drink No oranges are harmed in this procedure
Determination of Vitamin C in Foods
Apple Browning: A look at antioxidants
The Extraction and Identification of Artificial Colors From Foods
of a Peanut: Determining the Caloric Content of Selected Foods
the Waters: How Good is That Bottled Water and How Effective is Your
Fruit Juice Caviar
30-Second Microwave Chocolate Cake
Thermal Degradation of Mixed Saccharides with Protein Inclusions
Experiments with personal care materials and cosmetics
of a Skin Cream Prepare a basic skin cream and learn how each ingredient works.
of an Essential Oil
Perfume Use essential oils to make perfumes
and Evaluation of Sunscreens
Experiments involving over-the-counter drugs
Drug Lab: Synthesis of Aspirin and Acetaminophen
of a Basic Solution and Analysis of Stomach Antacid Tablets
The polymers lab consists of several experiments:
of a Polymer
Polymers Includes the preparation or study of the properties of several different polymers.
of Synthetic Rubber A microscale polymer preparation. This includes the preparation of a rubber ball from latex.
The metals lab consists of several experiments:
Heat Treatment of Iron
Cleaning Metals and Metal Polish cleans metals two different ways
Electroplating is currently under development
Experiment in Alchemy: Copper to Silver to Gold
Nitinol: Metal with a memory
Nanotechnology experiments are located at the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center
(MRSEC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Click on this link to
go to the entire Video
Lab Manual of experiments for Nanoscale Science and Technology.
The links below will take you directly to the experiments or will open
a modified experiment..
Nanotechnology: Synthesis of Aqueous Ferrofluid Nanoparticles
Nanotechnology: Synthesis of Cholesteryl Ester Liquid
Nanotechnology: Make a Liquid Crystal Pixel
Nanotechnology: Investigation of a Liquid Crystal Watch
Nanotechnology: Calibration of a Liquid Crystal Mood Ring
Nanotechnology: Graphene Prepare graphene from graphite with sticky tape
Nanotechnology: Nitinol Wire
In addition to the
above experiments, there is a section of Nanoscale
Science and Technology Demonstrations, a series of short movies
that demonstrate aspects of nanotechnology. Click on this link to go
to the movie page. (Requires Quicktime which can be downloaded at no
cost from the link on the movie page.)
The Nano Song by the Sounds of Science a group of graduate students and alumni at UC Berkeley. Nanotechnology can be fun.
Experiments involving dyes and dyeing
Preparation of a Synthetic Dye is currently under development
Experiments involving artist materials
Making Wax Crayons
Making Pastels is currently under development
and Geological Formations and Mining for Natural Resources
Experiments involving energy