• Chem 125
 

Chemistry 125IN: Consumer Chemistry

These files are provided for students in Chemistry 125IN, an integrated lecture and laboratory class at Pima Community College for the 2013-2014 academic year.

Lecture and Class Information:

CHM 125IN Syllabus for Fall 2013

Short Report Information for CHM 125IN

What's That Stuff This is a link to the Chemical & Engineering News web page which archives their continuing columns on the chemistry of everyday materials. These articles are not highly technical. Chemical & Engineering News is the weekly publication of the American Chemical Society.

The Science Channel now posts videos from their shows How Do They Do It? and How It's Made which focus on many products

Important Information:

This is an integrated class that combines both the lecture and the laboratory. 

Passing the course requires attendance to class, completion of assignments, quizzes, exams, and all aspects of the laboratory experiments including any pre-lab reports, and laboratory reports.

A major requirement of this course is writing two short reports, each being 5 pages in length, double spaced. Details of these reports are given in the course syllabus and also on this web page.

Reference Material:

No textbook is required for this course. The book by Ben Selinger, Chemistry in the Marketplace, can be used as a reference for this course.

The Periodic Table If you are looking for information on any chemical element, its properties, or its uses, use this link to the Web Elements Periodic Table by Mark Winter, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Sheffield. Probably the best periodic table on the Internet, it provides a wealth of information about the elements.

Visual Elements Periodic Table This is a link to the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) interactive periodic table. Elements can be highlighted by their groups, blocks and periods. There is an abundance of information about each element and it will continue to evolve with additional information.

ChemSpider If you are searching for information on chemical compounds, their structure or other information, ChemSpider links together compound information across the web, providing free text and structure search access of millions of chemical structures. With an abundance of additional property information, tools to curate and use the data, and integration to a multitude of other online services, ChemSpider is the richest single source of structure-based chemistry information available online.  ChemSpider is provided free by the Royal Society of Chemistry

Many of the references listed below are links to other web sites. These links, or the information referred to, may change when web sites are updated. Some web sites may be deleted by sponsoring organizations over time. Please advise your instructor if a web site is no longer accessible.

The origins of chemistry

An Illustrated History of Alchemy and Chemistry from ancient times to 1800

Math Review includes significant figures and scientific notation

Math Review Algebraic operations you should be able to do before starting a general chemistry course

Math Answers Answers to the Math Review problems

Significant Figures, Exponents, and Scientific Notation A tutorial

A Summary of Significant Figures Rules

Answers for Significant Figures, Exponents, and Scientific Notation

Measurement, and Temperature

Metric System The SI system with a short history of measurement

Temperature Temperature measurement with a short historical background

Absolute Zero This is a program from NOVA (split into 10 chapters). The program presents a history of temperature measurement up to the modern methods of trying to reach absolute zero. This is a link to the NOVA website.

The Elements and the Periodic Table

Element Symbols A historical approach to modern element symbols

Forging the Elements How were the elements formed? This is a segement from the NOVA program Origins: Back to the Beginning. Watch the entire program (split into 6 chapters) or just select the Forging the Elements chapter. This is a link to the NOVA website.

All the Gold in the Universe Could Come From the Collisions of Neutron Stars An article by Joseph Stromberg from Smithsonian.com, July 17, 2013, about the origins of heavy metals in the iniverse.

The End of the World Might Just Look Like This An article from Smithsonian, July 18, 2013 by Ron Miller. If you viewed the NOVA program Origins: Back to the Beginning of just the Forging the Elements segment, you have an idea of how the world started. This is how it could end.

The Periodic Table This is a link to the Web Elements Periodic Table by Mark Winter, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Sheffield. Probably the best periodic table on the Internet, it provides a wealth of information about the elements. This is the place to look for information about the chemical elements.

Electron configurations This is an applet for electron configurations from The ChemCollective at Carnegie Mellon

Prospects for Further Considerable Extension of the Periodic Table, a paper by Glenn T. Seaborg, Journal of Chemical Education, 46, Number 10, October 1969, p626

Island of Stability A video from NOVA explaining how heavy elements are made. This is a link to the NOVA website

The Elements A song by Tom Lehrer recored in 1959 and originally publishedon the recording An Evening Wasted with Tom Lehrer. This version comes from HallofWisdom in Seattle

Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature

Formula Writing Includes nomenclature of inorganic compounds.

Answers for Formula Writing

Additional Tables for Formula Writng These tables were supplied by Matthew Medeiros of Pima Community College.

Flowcharts for Naming Compounds and Common Acids

Chemical Formulas and Formula Weight Calculations A tutorial on the meaning of chemical formulas and formula weight calculations.

Chemical Formulas and Formula Weight Calculations This is a PDF of the PowerPoint presentation used in class.

NaCl by Kate and Anna McGarrigle. Kate was failing her chemistry course and came up with this while studying for her exam.

Organic Chemistry

Notes on Organic Chemistry This is a PDF of the PowerPoint used in class

Nomenclature of Organic Compounds A tutorial on organic nomenclature

The Athabasca Tar Sands This is a PDF file of the PowerPoint presentation used in class

The Trans-Alaska Pipline This is a PDF file of the PowerPoint presentation used in class

Product Safety and Toxicology

Product safety standards This is a link to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commision

Toxicology basics This is a PDF of a PowerPoint presentation Principles of Toxicology by Elizabeth Casarez of the Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy.

Notes on Toxicology basics These are a PDF file of the Principles of Toxicology (BIOC 597c) by Elizabeth Casarez of the Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy.

NIH/NLM Toxicology Tutor (also called Tox Tutors) from the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.

Soap and Detergent

Soap This is a link to the Wikipedia article on soap

Detergent This is a link to the Wikipedia article on detergent

The Chemistry of Cleaning Clothes This is a link to the HowStuffWorks web site

Soaps & Detergents: Products & Ingredients This is a link to the American Cleaning Institute web site which presents an overview of many household cleaners. A 36 page book on Soaps and Detergents, written for the general public, is available for download in PDF format.

Food Chemistry

There are numerous articles on foods on the Internet. Mary articles are factual, but many also are biased depending on the sponsors of the web site you visit. (That includes some medical web sites.) Always check several different web sites to get a balanced view of the food items you are researching.

Fats and Oils

Summary information can be found at the U.S. Department of Agriculture website:

Click here for information on oils Also view additional information clicking on the Oils menu on the right of that page.

Click here for information about solid fats (listed under the topic of Empty Calories) Also view additional information clicking on the Empty Calories menu on the right of that page.

The American Dietetic Association has a Primer on Fats and Oils

Cooking oil This is a link to the Wikipedia articles on Cooking Oil. This article contains a listing of the smoke point of many oils.

Olestra: Wow! or Woe? A paper by Katie Watson from the Health Psychology Department at Vanderbilt University

Sugar

Sugar Stacks presents a unique way of showing how much sugar is in our food.

Sugar This is a link to the Wikipedia page on sugar.

High-fructose corn syrup This is a link to the Wikipedia page on high-fructose corn syrup.

The Sugar Association has a web site about sugar. Explore this site.

Sugar alcohols are sweeteners used with or in place of sugar. This is a link to the Wikipedia page on sugar alcohols

Sugar substitute This is a link to the Wikipedia page on sugar substitutes.

Some other web sites discussing sugar and artificial sweeteners with reasonable balanced discussions include The Mayo Clinic, MedicineNet.com, WedMD, and Howstuffworks

Butter and Margarine

Learn about butter, its history, controversies, and how its made at Butter Through the Ages

Margarine This is a link to the Wikipedia page about margarine

Coffee

Chemistry in Every Cup An article about the chemistry of coffee by Emma Davies, from Chemistry World, May 2011

Coffee and Your Health This is a link to WebMD discussing the potential health benefits and drawbacks of coffee.

Pickles

Learn about the Science of Pickles at the Exploratorium Science of Cooking Kitchen Lab. The site includes information and recipes

Pickling This is a link to the Wikipedia site on pickling. This is a basic article that, according to Wikipedia, needs additional information.

How Do I..Pickle? This is a link to the National Center for Home Food Preservation.

Root Beer

To learn more about root beer, brands, recipes and more go to Root Beer World

Popcorn

The Popcorn Board, a non-profit check-off organization funded by U.S. popcorn processors has a web site to raise awareness of popcorn as a versatile, whole-grain snack. Popcorn

Wikipedia has an article on popcorn This is a link to that page.

Food Additives and Nutrients

Food Additives: What They Do A list of common food additives and the reason they are added to our food.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has a website listing Everything Added To Food in the United States (EAFUS) There is a lot to navigate in this site.

A list of many food additives and their known usage, with a glossary of food additive terms can be found at the NutritionData website

The USDA has a Nutrition Information For You information page with a link to their National Nutrient Database

The International Food Information Council has a wesite listing a Functional Foods Fact Sheet: Antioxidants

Ka Tom Restaurant Supply publishes a MyPlate Resource Guide MyPlate replaces the USDA Food Pyramid nutrition guide. In addition to a History of USDA Food Guides, there is a current summary of Daily Recommendations and extensive links to nutritional information.

Cheese

Cheese.com is a website that has a searchable database of 670 cheeses by names, country of origin, kind of milkthat is used to produce it, or by texture

Beginning cheese making is an article by David B. Frankhauser, PhD. of University of Cincinnati Clermont College. He also has a web page Cheese making illustrated with step-by-step instructions.

Bread

Bread This is a link to the Wikipedia article on bread

On the Rise An article on Bread Chemistry by Bryan Reuben and Tom Coultate. This article originally appeared in Chemistry World, October 2009

Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day is the web site of Jeff Hertzberg, M.D. and Zoe Francois, authors of a book with the same title, on baking homemade bread with minimal kneading. Illustrated instructions are provided on this web site.

Barbeque

The Evolution of American Barbeque An article from Smithsonian.com, July 16, 2013

Barbeque This is a link to the Wikipedia page on barbeque. This is a good place to start for finding information on barbeque. Since barbeque styles vary with regions around the U.S. and the numerous variations, it is best to use a search engine to find additional information.

Molecular Gastronomy

Molecular gastronomy is the science that studies the physical and chemical processes that occur in cooking

Wikipedia has an article on Molecular Gastronomy. This is a link to that page.

How Molecular Gastronomy Works. This is a link to the How Stuff Works web site.

Food for tomorrow? An article by HerveThis in EMBO reports, Volume 11, October 2010

Texture - A hydrocolloid recipe collection (screen resolution version 2.3, May 2010) A book of recipes edited by Martin Lersch. This is published and updated on Martin Lersch's blog Khymos This is a link to his blog.

There are other web sites and blogs for molecular gastronomy (some with annoying ads that pop up). Those above are good places to start.

Sous vide This is a link to the Wikipedia page on Sous-vide (under pressure)

Cooking Sous Vide is a web site about sous vide cooking which is trying to collect information about the process and equipment with a list of recipes.

Water

The United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Water Science for Schools website contains information on many aspects of water, along with pictures, data, maps, and an interactive center where you can give opinions and test your water knowledge.

Wastewater/Sewage Treatment This is a link to the Wikipedia article on Sewage Treatment

Caloric Content of Food

CalorieLab allows you to search over 70,000 foods and 500 restaurants for information on calories, protein, carbohydrates, and fat.

Food Chemistry Articles from Chemistry World, October 2009. Chemistry World is a publication of the Royal Chemical Society (RSC) in Great Britain.

The Spice of Life describes some of the health benefits of spices

In a Fix tells about the importance of nitrogen fixation for fertilization of crops

Boxing Clever is an article about developments in packaging materials for foods

On the Rise describes bread chemistry by Bryan Reuben and Tom Coultate.

The Food Detectives tells about the investiagtion of food adulteration

Shaken, not stirred tells about some chemistry of mixed drinks

A Food Chemistry Parody by the Capitol Steps: Buy, Buy American Pie

Some Reference Books on Chemistry and Cooking

McGee, Harold, On Food and Cooking, Revised and updated edition, Scribners, 2004

McGee, Harold, The Curious Cook, Collier Books, 1990

Grosser, Arthur E., The Cookbook Decoder, Beaufort, 1981

Corriher, Shirley O., Cookwise, Morrow, 1997

Corriher, Shirley O., Bakewise, Scribner, 2008

Rosenthal, Sylvia, and Fran Shinagel, How Cooking Works, Macmillan, 1981

Coultate, Tom, and Jill Davies, Food, The Definitive Guide, Royal Society of Chemistry, 1994

Beckett, Stephen T., The Science of Chocolate, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2008

Clarke, C., The Science of Ice Cream, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004

Some TelevisionShows About food

American Eats focuses on the history of American foods and cooking. It was broadcast on the History Channel in 2006. Topics included Hot Dogs, Pizza, Ice Cream, and more. Episodes are ocasionally shown on the History Channel, some are available on youtube, and on TV.com. Some episodes are available on DVD.

Food Tech was a series broadcast on the History Channel in 2010. Host Bobby Bognar examined different meals such as Cheeseburger and Fries, Chinese Take-out, Mexican, Southern Fried, and more. Each episode traces the making of the foods that are part of the meals from farm to processing. Episodes are rerun on the History Chanel and can be found on youtube and TV.com.

Food Factory is the "How Its Made" of food. This show appears on the Food Network in Canada. It shows how favorite foods are made from raw materials to finished products. Usually 3 or 4 foods are shown in each episode.

Cosmetics and Personal Care

Skin Cream

Skin Cream This is a link to the WebMD site discussing Hope in a Jar: Do Skin Creams Work?

Skin Cream Ingredients This is a link to the WebMD site discussing the products in skin creams

The Vaseline skin lotion web site has a glossary of ingredients found in skin lotions. This is a link to that page.

Sunscreen Lotions

Sunscreen This is a link to the Wikipedia article. It contains a nice listing of active ingredients

Essential Oils and Perfumes

How Perfumes Work This is a link to the How Stuff Works web site

The Sweet Scent of Success An article about discovering and developing odor molecules for perfumes by Emma Davies from Chemistry World, February 2009

Want to know what's in your favorite perfume? Mabel White's Supply Company has a list of perfume recipes.

International Flavors and Fragrances (IFF) is a major supplier of flavors and fragrances. This is a link to their ingredients page of their web site. You can access a list of either fragance or flavor ingredients. When you open either page, you can get more information about any substance, such as chemical structures, uses, and properties, by clicking on its name.

Nature's Garden is a company that sells wholesale candle and soap supplies. Their web site has an extensive list of fragrance oils and essential oils. Although I have purchased fragrance oils from this company, this is not an endorsement of the company or a sales promotion.

Toothpaste

Toothpaste formulation and whitening toothpaste Information from the Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA), August 2001

Medicines and Drugs

Pain Relievers

MedlinePlus is a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. It is designed to direct you to information to answer health questions. This is a link to the pain relievers page.

FamilyDoctor.org provides health information and links. This is a link to the pain relievers page.

WebMD provides a wide range of health information. This is a link to the pain relievers page.

Drugs of Abuse

Charts of Commonly Abused Drugs can be found at the DEA (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration) and NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) web siites.

Diet Soda and Alcohol This is a short article from Smithsonian Magazine, January 16, 2014, titled Diet Soda Makes Breathalizers Think You're Drunk. This is not an in-depth study, but it contains some interesting information about alcohol and sugar.

Consumer Reports magazine published an excellent book Licit and Illicit Drugs This is a link to that book online.

Proteins

Proteins Unraveled An article on protein unfolding and applications to food chemistry and diseases..An article by Philip Ball from Chemistry World, December 2009

Household Products

Batteries

How Batteries Work This is a link to the howstuffworks web site

Energizer Learning Center has a site that tells about batteries, history, battery care, battery comparison, and some battery experiments.

Battery University is a site sponsored by Cadex Electronics Inc., in Vancouver BC. The site contains information about battery chemistries, best battery choices and ways to make your battery last longer.

Fuel Cells

How Fuel Cells Work This is a link to the HowStuffWorks web site on Fuel Cells

Fuel Cells This is a link to the NOVA site that has a 14 minute video on fuel cell cars and a number of discussion points on fuel cells

The Online Fuel Cell Information Resource This is a link to a web site from the Breakthrough Technologies Institute (BTI), a non-profit [501(c)(3)] independent, educational organization that identifies and promotes environmental and energy technologies that can improve the human condition.

Light Bulbs

LEDs to Light up the World An article by Ned Stafford about LED bulbs from Chemistry World, April 2010

Materials

The Spiders' Apprentices An article about the chemistry of spider silk and how scientists have tried to reproduce it. An article by Michael Gross from Chemistry World, December 2010

Paper

Papermaking A video on YouTube. Brian Cowie, CEO of The Paper Mill Store, Inc. takes us on a tour of Neenah Paper's Appleton, Wisconsin paper mill as they make recycled paper.

Ever Wonder How Paper is Made? A video showing the process of papermaking at Cortland Paper Mills in New York

"How It's Made": Paper from the Discovery/Science Channel. This video shows how handmade paper is produced commerically.

Polymers

The Macrogalleria is a polymer learning cite produced by the Polymer Science Learning Center of the Department of Polyer Science at the University of Southern Mississippi

Polymer is the Wikipedia site providing a brief semi-technical description of polymers

Rubber This is a link to the Wikipedia article on natural rubber.

Synthetic rubber This is a link to the Wikipedia article on synthetic rubber

Artist Materials

Crayons This is a link to the Wikipedia site

How Crayons and Markers are Made This is a link to the HowStuffWorks web site

How Crayons are Made This is a link to the Science Channel video from How its Made on Crayons

Nanotechnology

What is Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology Takes Off A QUEST video, Part of A KQED Multimedia Series Exploring Northern California Science, Environment and Nature

What is Nanotechnology This is a link to the web site of CRN, the Center for Responsible Nanotechnology

Introduction to Nanotechnology This is a link to the nanowerk website. This is a good multipage article on nanotechnology (An outline of the article's contents is on the left-hand side of the page.)

How Nanotechnology Works This is a link to the HowStuffWorks web site

The Nano Song by the Sounds of Science a group of graduate students and alumni at UC Berkeley. Nanotechnology can be fun.

Textiles

Textiles

History of Clothing and Textiles This is a link to the Wikipedia page on clothing and textiles

Dyes and Dyeing

A Brief History of Dyestuffs & Dyeing A brief history by Lady Siobhan nicDhuinnshleibhe presented at Runestone Collegium on 19 February 2000

Natural Dye This is a link to the Wikipedia page on Natural Dye

Colorants Industry History A brief illustrated history of the synthetic dye industry in Europe and the United states.

Textile Conservation

Textile Conservation An artilce by Anita Quye from Education in Chemistry, May 2013, on cleaning and preserving fabrics and clothing

 

Laboratory Experiments and Activities:

Tthe laboratory safety and procedures book, The General Chemistry Laboratory Survival Manual, is available in the college bookstore. The laboratory experiments are available here for downloading. Please check the course syllabus for dates for individual experiments. (These are PDF files and require acrobat reader.)

Read the experiments before coming to class. If you prefer to work from your computer or tablet, you will still need to download data pages for your lab reports.

Safety in the Academic Laboratory

Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories, 7th Ed. This is a link to the publication by the American Chemical Society Joint Board-council Committee on Chemical Safety

Safety Test Questions These questions are similar, but not exactly the same, as those asked on the safety test. The safety test contains 35 questions.

The Safety Song by the Sounds of Science a group of graduate students and alumni at UC Berkeley. Safety doesn't have to be boring.

Graphing with Excel A LabWrite Resources tutorial on graphing from NC State University

Experiments involving an investigation of physical and chemical properties

Mystery Powders

Experiments involving chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

The Synthesis of Zinc Iodide: Tracking a Chemical Reaction

Experiments involving how a chemical product is produced

Economics of a Chemical Product

Organic chemistry experiments

Esters: A Microscale Introduction to Organic Chemistry Reactions

Experiments involving acids and bases

Acids, Bases, and pH Using Red Cabbage Paper

Experiments with soap and detergent

The Chemistry of Soaps and Detergents This contains both the preparation of a soap and a detergent and testing the properties of soaps and detergents.

Evaluation of Detergents and Cleaning Aids

Preparation of a Dye Catcher

Experiments involving food

Safety with Food Chemistry Experiments

Potato Chips and French Fried Potatoes

Potato Chip Tasting

Determination of Fat in Potato Chips and French Fried Potatoes

Popcorn

Popcorn Why does popcorn pop?

Microwave Popcorn How is microwave popcorn constructed? Do you really need all those ingredients?

Fats and Oils

Butter in a Bottle

Size of a Fatty Acid Molecule

Pickling and Fermentation

Zip-Lock Pickles Make pickles in a small batch in a Zip-Lock bag

Quick Pickles Pickles in about an hour using standard cucumbers.

Quick Cabbage Salad (Quick Slaw) in as little as an hour

Root Beer

Nuts

Peanut and Nut Butter

Cheese

Easy Cheese A soft herb flavored cheese

Mozzarella How to make Mozzarella cheese

Bread and Yeast

Biscuits Three recipes for baking biscuits.

How Yeast Works

Food Additives and Nutrients

Esters: The Preparation of Artificial Food Flavors

Esters: A Microscale Introduction to Organic Chemistry Reactions

Make Your Own Orange Drink No oranges are harmed in this procedure

Sweeteners

Determination of Vitamin C in Foods

Apple Browning: A look at antioxidants

Chromatography: The Extraction and Identification of Artificial Colors From Foods

Energy of a Peanut: Determining the Caloric Content of Selected Foods

Water

Testing the Waters: How Good is That Bottled Water and How Effective is Your Water Filter

Molecular Gastronomy

Chocolate Chantilly

Fruit Juice Caviar

30-Second Microwave Chocolate Cake

Candymaking

Partial Thermal Degradation of Mixed Saccharides with Protein Inclusions

Experiments with personal care materials and cosmetics

Toothpaste Testing

Preparation of a Skin Cream Prepare a basic skin cream and learn how each ingredient works.

Isolation of an Essential Oil

Perfume Use essential oils to make perfumes

Preparation and Evaluation of Sunscreens

Experiments involving over-the-counter drugs

The Drug Lab: Synthesis of Aspirin and Acetaminophen

Standardization of a Basic Solution and Analysis of Stomach Antacid Tablets

The polymers lab consists of several experiments:

Identification of a Polymer

Polymers Includes the preparation or study of the properties of several different polymers.

Preparation of Synthetic Rubber A microscale polymer preparation. This includes the preparation of a rubber ball from latex.

The metals lab consists of several experiments:

Heat Treatment of Iron

Cleaning Metals and Metal Polish cleans metals two different ways

Electroplating is currently under development

An Experiment in Alchemy: Copper to Silver to Gold

Nitinol: Metal with a memory

Nanotechnology experiments are located at the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Click on this link to go to the entire Video Lab Manual of experiments for Nanoscale Science and Technology. The links below will take you directly to the experiments or will open a modified experiment..

Nanotechnology: Synthesis of Aqueous Ferrofluid Nanoparticles

Nanotechnology: Synthesis of Cholesteryl Ester Liquid Crystals

Nanotechnology: Make a Liquid Crystal Pixel

Nanotechnology: Investigation of a Liquid Crystal Watch

Nanotechnology: Calibration of a Liquid Crystal Mood Ring

Nanotechnology: Graphene Prepare graphene from graphite with sticky tape

Nanotechnology: Nitinol Wire

In addition to the above experiments, there is a section of Nanoscale Science and Technology Demonstrations, a series of short movies that demonstrate aspects of nanotechnology. Click on this link to go to the movie page. (Requires Quicktime which can be downloaded at no cost from the link on the movie page.)

The Nano Song by the Sounds of Science a group of graduate students and alumni at UC Berkeley. Nanotechnology can be fun.

Experiments involving dyes and dyeing

Preparation of a Synthetic Dye is currently under development

Dyes and Dyeing

Natural Plant Dyes

Papermaking

Papermaking

Experiments involving artist materials

Making Wax Crayons

Making Pastels is currently under development

Soils and Geological Formations and Mining for Natural Resources

Soil Science

Experiments involving energy

Batteries

Fuel Cells

Nuclear Chemistry Experiments